zope.deprecation API

Deprecating objects inside a module

Let’s start with a demonstration of deprecating any name inside a module. To demonstrate the functionality, First, let’s set up an example module containing fixtures we will use:

>>> import os
>>> import tempfile
>>> import zope.deprecation
>>> tmp_d = tempfile.mkdtemp('deprecation')
>>> zope.deprecation.__path__.append(tmp_d)
>>> doctest_ex = '''\
... from . import deprecated
...
... def demo1(): #pragma NO COVER  (used only in doctests)
...     return 1
... deprecated('demo1', 'demo1 is no more.')
...
... def demo2(): #pragma NO COVER  (used only in doctests)
...     return 2
... deprecated('demo2', 'demo2 is no more.')
...
... def demo3(): #pragma NO COVER  (used only in doctests)
...     return 3
... deprecated('demo3', 'demo3 is no more.')
...
... def demo4(): #pragma NO COVER  (used only in doctests)
...     return 4
... def deprecatedemo4(): #pragma NO COVER  (used only in doctests)
...     """Demonstrate that deprecated() also works in a local scope."""
...     deprecated('demo4', 'demo4 is no more.')
... '''
>>> with open(os.path.join(tmp_d, 'doctest_ex.py'), 'w') as f:
...     f.write(doctest_ex)

The first argument to the deprecated() function is a list of names that should be declared deprecated. If the first argument is a string, it is interpreted as one name. The second argument is the reason the particular name has been deprecated. It is good practice to also list the version in which the name will be removed completely.

Let’s now see how the deprecation warnings are displayed.

>>> import warnings
>>> from zope.deprecation import doctest_ex
>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     doctest_ex.demo1()
1
>>> print log[0].category.__name__
DeprecationWarning
>>> print log[0].message
demo1: demo1 is no more.

>>> import zope.deprecation.doctest_ex
>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     zope.deprecation.doctest_ex.demo2()
2
>>> print log[0].message
demo2: demo2 is no more.

You can see that merely importing the affected module or one of its parents does not cause a deprecation warning. Only when we try to access the name in the module, we get a deprecation warning. On the other hand, if we import the name directly, the deprecation warning will be raised immediately.

>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     from zope.deprecation.doctest_ex import demo3
>>> print log[0].message
demo3: demo3 is no more.

Deprecation can also happen inside a function. When we first access demo4, it can be accessed without problems, then we call a function that sets the deprecation message and we get the message upon the next access:

>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     doctest_ex.demo4()
4
>>> len(log)
0
>>> doctest_ex.deprecatedemo4()
>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     doctest_ex.demo4()
4
>>> print log[0].message.message #XXX oddball case: why nested?
demo4: demo4 is no more.

Deprecating methods and properties

New let’s see how properties and methods can be deprecated. We are going to use the same function as before, except that this time, we do not pass in names as first argument, but the method or attribute itself. The function then returns a wrapper that sends out a deprecation warning when the attribute or method is accessed.

>>> from zope.deprecation import deprecation
>>> class MyComponent(object):
...     foo = property(lambda self: 1)
...     foo = deprecation.deprecated(foo, 'foo is no more.')
...
...     bar = 2
...
...     def blah(self):
...         return 3
...     blah = deprecation.deprecated(blah, 'blah() is no more.')
...
...     def splat(self):
...         return 4
...
...     @deprecation.deprecate("clap() is no more.")
...     def clap(self):
...         return 5

And here is the result:

>>> my = MyComponent()
>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     my.foo
1
>>> print log[0].message.message # XXX see above
foo is no more.
>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     my.bar
2
>>> len(log)
0
>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     my.blah()
3
>>> print log[0].message.message # XXX see above
blah() is no more.
>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     my.splat()
4
>>> len(log)
0
>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     my.clap()
5
>>> print log[0].message.message # XXX see above
clap() is no more.

Deprecating modules

It is also possible to deprecate whole modules. This is useful when creating module aliases for backward compatibility. Let’s imagine, the zope.deprecation module used to be called zope.wanda and we’d like to retain backward compatibility:

>>> import sys
>>> sys.modules['zope.wanda'] = deprecation.deprecated(
...     zope.deprecation, 'A module called Wanda is now zope.deprecation.')

Now we can import wanda, but when accessing things from it, we get our deprecation message as expected:

>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     from zope.wanda import deprecated
>>> print log[0].message.message # XXX see above
A module called Wanda is now zope.deprecation.

Before we move on, we should clean up:

>>> del deprecated
>>> del sys.modules['zope.wanda']

Moving modules

When a module is moved, you often want to support importing from the old location for a while, generating a deprecation warning when someone uses the old location. This can be done using the moved function.

To see how this works, we’ll use a helper function to create two fake modules in the zope.deprecation package. First will create a module in the “old” location that used the moved function to indicate the a module on the new location should be used:

>>> import os
>>> created_modules = []
>>> def create_module(modules=(), **kw): #** highlightfail
...     modules = dict(modules)
...     modules.update(kw)
...     for name, src in modules.iteritems():
...         pname = name.split('.')
...         if pname[-1] == '__init__':
...             os.mkdir(os.path.join(tmp_d, *pname[:-1])) #* highlightfail
...             name = '.'.join(pname[:-1])
...         open(os.path.join(tmp_d, *pname)+'.py', 'w').write(src) #* hf
...         created_modules.append(name)
>>> create_module(old_location=
... '''
... import zope.deprecation
... zope.deprecation.moved('zope.deprecation.new_location', 'version 2')
... ''')

and we define the module in the new location:

>>> create_module(new_location=
... '''\
... print "new module imported"
... x = 42
... ''')

Now, if we import the old location, we’ll see the output of importing the old location:

>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     import zope.deprecation.old_location
new module imported
>>> print log[0].message.message
... 
zope.deprecation.old_location has moved to zope.deprecation.new_location.
Import of zope.deprecation.old_location will become unsupported
in version 2
>>> zope.deprecation.old_location.x
42

Moving packages

When moving packages, you need to leave placeholders for each module. Let’s look at an example:

>>> create_module({
... 'new_package.__init__': '''\
... print __name__, 'imported'
... x=0
... ''',
... 'new_package.m1': '''\
... print __name__, 'imported'
... x=1
... ''',
... 'new_package.m2': '''\
... print __name__, 'imported'
... def x():
...     pass
... ''',
... 'new_package.m3': '''\
... print __name__, 'imported'
... x=3
... ''',
... 'old_package.__init__': '''\
... import zope.deprecation
... zope.deprecation.moved('zope.deprecation.new_package', 'version 2')
... ''',
... 'old_package.m1': '''\
... import zope.deprecation
... zope.deprecation.moved('zope.deprecation.new_package.m1', 'version 2')
... ''',
... 'old_package.m2': '''\
... import zope.deprecation
... zope.deprecation.moved('zope.deprecation.new_package.m2', 'version 2')
... ''',
... })

Now, if we import the old modules, we’ll get warnings:

>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     import zope.deprecation.old_package
zope.deprecation.new_package imported
>>> print log[0].message
... 
zope.deprecation.old_package has moved to zope.deprecation.new_package.
Import of zope.deprecation.old_package will become unsupported in version 2
>>> zope.deprecation.old_package.x
0

>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     import zope.deprecation.old_package.m1
zope.deprecation.new_package.m1 imported
>>> print log[0].message
... 
zope.deprecation.old_package.m1 has moved to zope.deprecation.new_package.m1.
Import of zope.deprecation.old_package.m1 will become unsupported in
version 2
>>> zope.deprecation.old_package.m1.x
1

>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     import zope.deprecation.old_package.m2
zope.deprecation.new_package.m2 imported
>>> print log[0].message
... 
zope.deprecation.old_package.m2 has moved to zope.deprecation.new_package.m2.
Import of zope.deprecation.old_package.m2 will become unsupported in
version 2
>>> zope.deprecation.old_package.m2.x is zope.deprecation.new_package.m2.x
True

>>> (zope.deprecation.old_package.m2.x.func_globals
...  is zope.deprecation.new_package.m2.__dict__)
True

>>> zope.deprecation.old_package.m2.x.__module__
'zope.deprecation.new_package.m2'

We’ll get an error if we try to import m3, because we didn’t create a placeholder for it:

>>> import  zope.deprecation.old_package.m3
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
ImportError: No module named m3

Before we move on, let’s clean up the temporary modules / packages:

>>> zope.deprecation.__path__.remove(tmp_d)
>>> import shutil
>>> shutil.rmtree(tmp_d)

Temporarily turning off deprecation warnings

In some cases it is desireable to turn off the deprecation warnings for a short time. To support such a feature, the zope.deprecation package provides an attribute called __show__. One can ask for its status by calling it:

>>> from zope.deprecation import __show__
>>> __show__()
True

>>> class Foo(object):
...     bar = property(lambda self: 1)
...     bar = deprecation.deprecated(bar, 'bar is no more.')
...     blah = property(lambda self: 1)
...     blah = deprecation.deprecated(blah, 'blah is no more.')
>>> foo = Foo()

>>> with warnings.catch_warnings(record=True) as log:
...     del warnings.filters[:]
...     foo.bar
1
>>> print log[0].message
bar is no more.

You can turn off the depraction warnings using

>>> __show__.off()
>>> __show__()
False

>>> foo.blah
1

Now, you can also nest several turn-offs, so that calling off() multiple times is meaningful:

>>> __show__.stack
[False]

>>> __show__.off()
>>> __show__.stack
[False, False]

>>> __show__.on()
>>> __show__.stack
[False]
>>> __show__()
False

>>> __show__.on()
>>> __show__.stack
[]
>>> __show__()
True

You can also reset __show__ to True:

>>> __show__.off()
>>> __show__.off()
>>> __show__()
False

>>> __show__.reset()
>>> __show__()
True

Finally, you cannot call on() without having called off() before:

>>> __show__.on()
Traceback (most recent call last):
...
IndexError: pop from empty list